Characteristics and Properties of Transition Elements
The characteristics and properties of transition elements are categories as follows-
- Metallic character :-
Transition elements are metallic bonding by delocalized d-orbital electrons.
2. Atomic radii :-
The atomic radii is smaller than the s-block and p-block . As the atomic radii first decreases till the middle becomes constant and then increases towards the end of the period.
3. Ionization potential energy :-
Ionization potential energy is referred as the capacity to remove an electron from its isolated atoms.It is higher than the s-block and p-block. In particular transition series,ionization energy increases gradually on moving from left to right.
4. Oxidation state :-
Most of the transition elements exhibit variable oxidation state i.e. they show variable valency in their compounds. The maximum number of oxidation state is found in the first row transition elements series(titanium is +4 up to manganese is +7). In the 2nd and 3rd row maximum occurs with ruthenium and osmium(+8).But ionic compound are mostly formed with oxidation state +2,+3.
|Elements||Outer element configuration||oxidation state|
5. Colour :-
Colour of transition elements is due to the two way principal
- Charge transfer transitions. An electron may jump from a ligand orbital to a metal orbital( LMCT),that is only occur when the metal is in a high oxidation state.For example, the colour of chromate,dichromate and permanaganate ions is due to LMCT,mercuric iodide is red due to LMCT.
- d-d transitions. An electron jumps from one d-orbital to another.The pattern of jumping of the d orbitals can be calculated by using crystal field theory.The extent of the splitting depends on the particular metal, its oxidation state and the nature of the ligands. In centrosymmetric complexes, such as octahedral complexes,d-d transitions are forbidden by the Laporte rule and only occur because of vibronic coupling in which a molecular vibration occurs together with a d-d transition. Tetrahedral complexes have somewhat more intense colour because mixing d and p orbitals is possible when there is no centre of symmetry, so transitions are not pure d-d transitions.
6. Magnetic Properties :-
Transition metal compounds are paramagnetic. The magnetic moment value(µ) can be related to the number of unpaired electrons,according to the following relation
µ = √n(n+2) BM
n=No. of unpaired electrons.
BM=Bohr magneton,unit of magnetic moment
The measurement of magnetic moments in complex compound can give the information about the structure of the compounds.This property has greater importance in distinguishing high spin or low spin octahedral complex.
7. Catalytic properties :-
Most of the transition elements and their compounds have good catalytic properties. For example platinum(Pt),iron(Fe),vanadium pentoxide(V2O5),nickle are important catalyst.
8. Other properties :-
-Transition elements are conductor of electricity.
-High density,high melting points,high boiling points.
Complex Formation of Transition Elements :-
Transition elements and their ions show strong tendency of transition metals to form complexes due to the following two factors
- These ions are very small in size and so they have high +ve charge density.
- They have vacant orbitals and thus accept lone pair of electrons donated by ligands to form co-ordinate bonds. Greater charge on the metal ion the power of attraction for lone pairs of electron.
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